Notes on AFH-1, 1 Nov 21, Chapter 13, Developing Others



8 Feb 2022. The 2021 Air Force Handbook is not available yet. The E-5 and E-6 Study Guides were released and posted to the official Air Force website (https://www.studyguides.af.mil/) on 1 Feb 2022. This website was updated using the content from the E-6 Study Guide under the assumption that because both study guides were excerpts taken from the Air Force Handbook, they would be the same. However, there are minor differences between the two study guides as noted below. Questions related to these differences have been removed or edited as necessary to avoid conflict and ensure accuracy.


The phrases, "Air Force" and "Regular Air Force", were replaced globally by "USAF" and "RegAF" in the E-5 Study Guide, leading to many inappropriate substitutions, too numerous to cite here.

The reference, AFMAN 36-2643, Air Force Mentoring Program, was superseded by AFH 36-2643, Air Force Mentoring Program, but is still listed as "AFM".


2021 E5 Study Guide

13.5. Conflict Management Techniques
There are a few techniques that can be used to minimize the impact that workplace conflict can have on individuals and on the organization. When considering the degree of cooperation, and the degree of assertiveness of those involved, leaders can determine how to categorize conflict and how to best manage it. Cooperation refers to how willing or unwilling a person or group is to satisfy the other's needs. Assertiveness refers to how passive or active a person is in addressing the conflict. Using an approach addressed by Dr. Kenneth Thomas, author of Conflict and Negotiation Processes in Organizations, there are five major conflict management styles and categories, defined based on the levels of cooperation and assertiveness associated with any given situation.

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.5. Conflict Management Techniques
There are a few techniques that can be used to minimize the impact that workplace conflict can have on individuals and on the organization. When considering the degree of cooperation, and the degree of assertiveness of those involved, leaders can determine how to categorize conflict and how to best manage it. Cooperation refers to how willing or unwilling a person or group is to satisfy the other's needs. Assertiveness refers to how passive or active a person is in addressing the conflict. Using an approach addressed by Dr. Kenneth Thomas, author of Conflict and Negotiation Processes in Organizations, there are five major conflict management styles and categorizes, defined based on the levels of cooperation and assertiveness associated with any given situation.

2021 E5 Study Guide

13.7.
A leader is a person who leads or commands a group, organization, or country. Terms often associated with leadership roles include flight leader, team leader, and squad leader. Warren G. Bennis, Founding Chair, The Leadership Institute, University of Southern California, labeled three primary behavioral leader characteristics as the abilities to motivate, develop, and inspire. Under this model, leaders motivate and inspire people to interact and understand one another as they move in the right direction by satisfying human needs for a sense of belonging (belongingness and love), recognition (esteem), self-esteem (esteem), and control over their lives (safety and security) which can lead to a sense of achievement (self-actualization). The model developed by Warren Bennis echoes Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory (Figure 13.1.) for motivation which outlines the road to self-actualization.

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.7.
A leader is a person who leads or commands a group, organization, or country. Terms often associated with leadership roles include flight leader, team leader, and squad leader. Warren G. Bennis, Founding Chair, The Leadership Institute, University of Southern California, labeled three primary behavioral leader characteristics as the abilities to motivate, develop, and inspire. Under this model, leaders motivate and inspire people to interact and understand one another as they move in the right direction by satisfying human needs for a sense of belonging (belongingness and love), recognition (esteem), self-esteem (esteem), and control over their lives (safety and security) which can lead to a sense of achievement (self-actualization). The model developed by Warren Bennis echoes Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory (Figure 14.1) for motivation which outlines the road to self-actualization.

2021 E5 Study Guide

13.10.
Mentors must distinguish between individual goals, career aspirations, and realistic expectations. Each individual defines a successful career, goal, or life accomplishment differently. There are numerous paths to meet individual career and success goals. Although the immediate supervisor or rater is the primary mentor, coach, counselor, guide, or role model for Airmen, subordinates may seek additional counseling and professional development advice from other sources or mentors as well. While there are several approaches mentors can take in the form of coach, counselor, advisor, and advocate, USAF mentoring is governed by AFMAN 36-2643, Air Force Mentoring Program, 17 May 2019.

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.10.
Mentors must distinguish between individual goals, career aspirations, and realistic expectations. Each individual defines a successful career, goal, or life accomplishment differently. There are numerous paths to meet individual career and success goals. Although the immediate supervisor or rater is the primary mentor, coach, counselor, guide, or role model for Airmen, subordinates may seek additional counseling and professional development advice from other sources or mentors as well. While there are several approaches mentors can take in the form of coach, counselor, advisor, and advocate, Air Force mentoring is governed by AFMAN 36-2643, Air Force Mentoring Program.






Changes Between 2019 AFH-1 and 2021 E-6 Study Guide

Section 13A, Teamwork

Paragraphs 13.1. - 13.5. (All of Section A): No Changes

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.1. Team Building

Dynamic is a way of describing elements of a process or system; it is a term used to recognize constant change, activity, or progress. Dynamic can also be used to describe a force that stimulates change or progress. As Airmen, we must know and understand our leaders, peers, and subordinates. In team environments, we must know the right approaches to building effective teams and cultivating a healthy, dynamic team spirit. The spirit in which a team operates will influence every stage of team development and can ultimately determine whether goals are met. Healthy teams are high performing teams that most often have a foundation of trust, communication, and cooperation. While each is essential in building a healthy team spirit, trust is at the core of all healthy team interaction. Team members must feel comfortable with, and confident in, one another to be able to fully participate. Positive group member behavior is essential for a team to accomplish its goals. Team members do not often immediately form strong bonds for trust, communication, and cooperation. There are typically stages that teams experience before rising to the level of becoming highly functional, productive teams.

Trust. Teamwork requires a high degree of trust. Team members must share mutual confidence in the integrity and ability of teammates. They also need to feel comfortable enough to take risks, think outside the box, and share their thoughts and ideas without fear of being shut down or discounted. Freedom to communicate openly, honestly, and directly within the group is the hallmark of a trust-based team. Individuals must understand the importance of utilizing effective communication skills to develop the level of trust needed for the teams to grow.

"Nothing reduces trust in a group faster than members saying one thing within the group and something else outside the group. When members are assertive enough to say what they need to say directly to the appropriate people and to refrain from talking behind each other's backs, trust is enhanced."

- Suzanne Zoglio, author of Teams at Work

Creating trust among team members requires professional working relationships, professional behavior, and a desire to achieve established objectives. Dialogue and feedback must be exchanged between members in an open and sincere manner without fear of harsh criticism. Team members should respond to one another with inclusion, receptivity to inputs, and information sharing. It's true...there's honesty and then there's brutal honesty. Feedback, critical thinking, and disagreements can be exchanged among team members without being brutally honest or offensive. Leaders can promote a trusting atmosphere by valuing individual differences and encouraging open and honest communication. Leaders empower their teams to solve problems innovatively through a shared sense of collaboration that is free of self-preservation and personal bias. Leaders should focus their efforts on setting the right tone for developing trusting relationships, communicating openly and honestly, knowing and establishing a good rapport with team members, and discouraging cliques or divisions within the team. In other words, team leaders should set the example and lead by example.

Communication. Teams must communicate. Team members need to safely assert themselves and share their ideas. Teams that don't allow honest, open sharing quickly lose their effectiveness. As a result, some team members may purposely withhold vital information or disengage from the team. This may cause confusion, frustration, and the inability to complete tasks within teams. While sharing information between team members is essential in producing effective, well thought out plans, leaders must be willing to share information with team members. When leaders hold on to information, they can create an inaccurate, incomplete, or totally wrong picture of the expected outcome to team members. Information sharing yields better results. Leaders can increase team success by giving members complete access to all necessary data, discouraging the discounting of ideas and feelings, and encouraging the practice of active listening and valuing individual differences.

Cooperation. Cooperation is critical if teams are to combine diverse backgrounds, skills, and approaches to meet the challenges, customer requirements, and mission changes. Cooperation yields synergistic results and reduces the exerted effort it takes to reach a desired outcome. Leaders who encourage cooperation show team members that others have very important contributions to the goals of the team. Team members may also come to understand how dependent they are on one another in reaching mission objectives. Successful teams have few turf wars, little competitiveness, and an ability to forgive and forget. Cooperation breeds shared ownership for performance results, and achieving objectives increases team pride and a healthy team spirit. A sign that a team is not performing cohesively is when competition exists among team members. This may be observed when some team members attempt to outshine others to gain extra attention or credibility. When a member of a team demonstrates "all-starring" behavior, they may be experiencing a power struggle. To reduce power-play behavior, leaders should reemphasize each team member's specific roles and responsibilities, which eliminates potential barriers to cooperation.

2019 AFH-1

13.18. Team Building

Dynamic is a way of describing elements of a process or system; it is a term used to recognize constant change, activity, or progress. Dynamic can also be used to describe a force that stimulates change or progress. As Airmen, we must know and understand our leaders, peers, and subordinates. In team environments, we must know the right approaches to building effective teams and cultivating a healthy, dynamic team spirit. The spirit in which a team operates will influence every stage of team development and can ultimately determine whether goals are met. Healthy teams are high performing teams that most often have a foundation of trust, communication, and cooperation. While each is essential in building a healthy team spirit, trust is at the core of all healthy team interaction. Team members must feel comfortable with, and confident in, one another to be able to fully participate. Positive group member behavior is essential for a team to accomplish its goals. Team members do not often immediately form strong bonds for trust, communication, and cooperation. There are typically stages that teams experience before rising to the level of becoming highly functional, productive teams.

Trust. Teamwork requires a high degree of trust. Team members must share mutual confidence in the integrity and ability of teammates. They also need to feel comfortable enough to take risks, think outside the box, and share their thoughts and ideas without fear of being shut down or discounted. Freedom to communicate openly, honestly, and directly within the group is the hallmark of a trust-based team. Individuals must understand the importance of utilizing effective communication skills to develop the level of trust needed for the teams to grow.

"Nothing reduces trust in a group faster than members saying one thing within the group and something else outside the group. When members are assertive enough to say what they need to say directly to the appropriate people and to refrain from talking behind each other's backs, trust is enhanced."

- Suzanne Zoglio, author of Teams at Work

Creating trust among team members requires professional working relationships, professional behavior, and a desire to achieve established objectives. Dialogue and feedback must be exchanged between members in an open and sincere manner without fear of harsh criticism. Team members should respond to one another with inclusion, receptivity to inputs, and information sharing. It's true...there's honesty and then there's brutal honesty. Feedback, critical thinking, and disagreements can be exchanged among team members without being brutally honest or offensive. Leaders can promote a trusting atmosphere by valuing individual differences and encouraging open and honest communication. Leaders empower their teams to solve problems innovatively through a shared sense of collaboration that is free of self-preservation and personal bias. Leaders should focus their efforts on setting the right tone for developing trusting relationships, communicating openly and honestly, knowing and establishing a good rapport with team members, and discouraging cliques or divisions within the team. In other words, team leaders should set the example and lead by example.

Communication. Teams must communicate. Team members need to safely assert themselves and share their ideas. Teams that don't allow honest, open sharing quickly lose their effectiveness. As a result, some team members may purposely withhold vital information or disengage from the team. This may cause confusion, frustration, and the inability to complete tasks within teams. While sharing information between team members is essential in producing effective, well thought out plans, leaders must be willing to share information with team members. When leaders hold on to information, they can create an inaccurate, incomplete, or totally wrong picture of the expected outcome to team members. Information sharing yields better results. Leaders can increase team success by giving members complete access to all necessary data, discouraging the discounting of ideas and feelings, and encouraging the practice of active listening and valuing individual differences.

Cooperation. Cooperation is critical if teams are to combine diverse backgrounds, skills, and approaches to meet the challenges, customer requirements, and mission changes. Cooperation yields synergistic results and reduces the exerted effort it takes to reach a desired outcome. Leaders who encourage cooperation show team members that others have very important contributions to the goals of the team. Team members may also come to understand how dependent they are on one another in reaching mission objectives. Successful teams have few turf wars, little competitiveness, and an ability to forgive and forget. Cooperation breeds shared ownership for performance results, and achieving objectives increases team pride and a healthy team spirit. A sign that a team is not performing cohesively is when competition exists among team members. This may be observed when some team members attempt to outshine others to gain extra attention or credibility. When a member of a team demonstrates "all-starring" behavior, they may be experiencing a power struggle. To reduce power-play behavior, leaders should reemphasize each team member's specific roles and responsibilities, which eliminates potential barriers to cooperation.

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.2. Stages of Team Building

The typical stages or team dynamics that groups or teams experience are normal and often inevitable. The four stages most often experienced by teams are:

FORMING - STORMING - NORMING - PERFORMING

- Forming. Forming is the initial period of uncertainty in which individuals try to determine their place on a team and establish or accept the procedures and rules of the team. When a team is forming, members cautiously explore the boundaries of acceptable group behavior in various ways. The forming stage is when the transition from individual to member status occurs and when a leader's guidance is tested, both formally and informally.

- Storming. During the storming stage, conflicts begin to arise as members tend to resist the influence of the team and rebel against accomplishing the task. Storming is probably the most difficult stage when some team members begin to realize the task is different and more difficult than they initially expected. Impatient about the lack of progress, but still too inexperienced to know much about decision-making or the scientific approach, members argue about just what actions the team should take. Team members may try to rely solely on their experience, thus resisting the need for collaboration with other team members. Regardless of tensions, during the storming stage, team members are beginning to understand one another.

- Norming. During the norming stage, team members establish cohesiveness and commitment, discovering new ways of working together and setting norms for appropriate behavior. During the norming stage, members reconcile competing loyalties and responsibilities and begin to accept the team, team ground rules (norms), their roles in the team, and the individuality of fellow members. Emotional conflict is reduced as competitive relationships become more cooperative. As the team begins to work out their differences, they focus more timeand energy on the team objective.

- Performing. In the performing stage, the team develops proficiency in achieving its goals and becomes more flexible in its patterns of working together. By the performing stage, the team has settled its relationships and expectations and can begin diagnosing and solving problems and choosing and implementing changes. At last, team members have discovered and accepted each other's strengths and weaknesses and learned and embraced their roles. In the performing stage, the team can be considered to be an effective, cohesive, and productive unit.

2019 AFH-1

13.19. Stages of Team Building

The typical stages or team dynamics that groups or teams experience are normal and often inevitable. The four stages most often experienced by teams are:

FORMING - STORMING - NORMING - PERFORMING

- Forming. Forming is the initial period of uncertainty in which individuals try to determine their place on a team and establish or accept the procedures and rules of the team. When a team is forming, members cautiously explore the boundaries of acceptable group behavior in various ways. The forming stage is when the transition from individual to member status occurs and when a leader's guidance is tested, both formally and informally.

- Storming. During the storming stage, conflicts begin to arise as members tend to resist the influence of the team and rebel against accomplishing the task. Storming is probably the most difficult stage when some team members begin to realize the task is different and more difficult than they initially expected. Impatient about the lack of progress, but still too inexperienced to know much about decision-making or the scientific approach, members argue about just what actions the team should take. Team members may try to rely solely on their experience, thus resisting the need for collaboration with other team members. Regardless of tensions, during the storming stage, team members are beginning to understand one another.

- Norming. During the norming stage, team members establish cohesiveness and commitment, discovering new ways of working together and setting norms for appropriate behavior. During the norming stage, members reconcile competing loyalties and responsibilities and begin to accept the team, team ground rules (norms), their roles in the team, and the individuality of fellow members. Emotional conflict is reduced as competitive relationships become more cooperative. As the team begins to work out their differences, they focus more time and energy on the team objective.

- Performing. In the performing stage, the team develops proficiency in achieving its goals and becomes more flexible in its patterns of working together. By the performing stage, the team has settled its relationships and expectations and can begin diagnosing and solving problems and choosing and implementing changes. At last, team members have discovered and accepted each other's strengths and weaknesses and learned and embraced their roles. In the performing stage, the team can be considered to be an effective, cohesive, and productive unit.

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.3. Conflict Management

Conflict is inevitable in every organization, and is often necessary to reach high levels of performance. Conflict involves differences between parties that result in interference or opposition. Such differences can motivate for positive change or decrease productivity. Positive conflict results in addressing problems for a solution, greater understanding, and enhanced communication between individuals or groups. Conflict can be constructive when managed effectively. Conflict becomes destructive when it results in barriers to cooperation and communication, thus degrading morale and diverting attention away from tasks. At times, managers tend to avoid conflict because of its negative repercussions; however, managing conflict effectively benefits the organization by reducing ambiguity and stimulating productivity.

2019 AFH-1

13.20. Conflict Management

Conflict is inevitable in every organization, and is often necessary to reach high levels of performance. Conflict involves differences between parties that result in interference or opposition. Such differences can motivate for positive change or decrease productivity. Positive conflict results in addressing problems for a solution, greater understanding, and enhanced communication between individuals or groups. Conflict can be constructive when managed effectively. Conflict becomes destructive when it results in barriers to cooperation and communication, thus degrading morale and diverting attention away from tasks. At times, managers tend to avoid conflict because of its negative repercussions; however, managing conflict effectively benefits the organization by reducing ambiguity and stimulating productivity.

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.4. Sources of Conflict

Conflict is defined as frustration of an important concern, whether real or perceived. Many factors may result in or increase the probability of conflict within an organization. These factors manifest themselves in combination with other factors, making it potentially difficult to identify the specific source of the conflict. Conflict often originates with one or more of the following situations.

Communication Factors. Communication often gets the blame for problems that occur in the workplace; however, the real crux of the problem is more likely to be miscommunication. For example, communication may be occurring, sometimes even over-communication occurs within an organization, but when the communication is misinterpreted, inaccurate, or incomplete, this leads to frustration and stress. For personnel to perform at their very best, they need constructive, comprehensible, and accurate information.

Structural Factors. It is likely that the larger the organization, the more people there will be to potentially cause and participate in conflict. Resources, whether scarce or under high demand, may generate conflict as each party postures to compete for the resource. The more people interact, the more noticeable their differences become. When dealing with line-staff distinctions, this can lead to disputes, partly because although people may attempt to participate, it does not necessarily mean their contributions are heard, valued, or accepted. Leaders should encourage employees to challenge the status quo, seek better ways of doing business, and continually improve processes. Also, rewards programs can potentially encourage and develop a healthy competition as long as the rewards aren't perceived as unfair, unjust, or biased in some way.

Personal Behavior Factors. Conflict can arise because of individual differences, such as goals and objectives, perceptions, values, and personalities. If we align our personal needs and values with the overall Air Force mission, we will be more aptly willing to change, set aside self-interests, listen to the ideas of others, and reduce conflict. Although not always easy, striving to align personal values with Air Force values can reduce conflict that arises based on differences that exist in the workplace. Differences can be perceived as threats, weaknesses, or stressors in the workplace. Focusing on diversity through strengths that contribute to the organization in different ways can help reduce criticism and avoid conflict. Addressing issues through a realistic or even positive perspective rather than being based on emotion will lead to less arguments and more professionally driven performance. Personality conflicts and differences among employees will always exist, but the way we respond to them does not have to be unprofessional or disruptive to the organization.

2019 AFH-1

13.21. Sources of Conflict

Conflict is defined as frustration of an important concern, whether real or perceived. Many factors may result in or increase the probability of conflict within an organization. These factors manifest themselves in combination with other factors, making it potentially difficult to identify the specific source of the conflict. Conflict often originates with one or more of the following situations.

Communication Factors. Communication often gets the blame for problems that occur in the workplace; however, the real crux of the problem is more likely to be miscommunication. For example, communication may be occurring, sometimes even over-communication occurs within an organization, but when the communication is misinterpreted, inaccurate, or incomplete, this leads to frustration and stress. For personnel to perform at their very best, they need constructive, comprehensible, and accurate information.

Structural Factors. It is likely that the larger the organization, the more people there will be to potentially cause and participate in conflict. Resources, whether scarce or under high demand, may generate conflict as each party postures to compete for the resource. The more people interact, the more noticeable their differences become. When dealing with line-staff distinctions, this can lead to disputes, partly because although people may attempt to participate, it does not necessarily mean their contributions are heard, valued, or accepted. Leaders should encourage employees to challenge the status quo, seek better ways of doing business, and continually improve processes. Also, rewards programs can potentially encourage and develop a healthy competition as long as the rewards aren't perceived as unfair, unjust, or biased in some way.

Personal Behavior Factors. Conflict can arise because of individual differences, such as goals and objectives, perceptions, values, and personalities. If we align our personal needs and values with the overall Air Force mission, we will be more aptly willing to change, set aside self-interests, listen to the ideas of others, and reduce conflict. Although not always easy, striving to align personal values with Air Force values can reduce conflict that arises based on differences that exist in the workplace. Differences can be perceived as threats, weaknesses, or stressors in the workplace. Focusing on diversity through strengths that contribute to the organization in different ways can help reduce criticism and avoid conflict. Addressing issues through a realistic or even positive perspective rather than being based on emotion will lead to less arguments and more professionally driven performance. Personality conflicts and differences among employees will always exist, but the way we respond to them does not have to be unprofessional or disruptive to the organization.

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.5. Conflict Management Techniques

There are a few techniques that can be used to minimize the impact that workplace conflict can have on individuals and on the organization. When considering the degree of cooperation, and the degree of assertiveness of those involved, leaders can determine how to categorize conflict and how to best manage it. Cooperation refers to how willing or unwilling a person or group is to satisfy the other's needs. Assertiveness refers to how passive or active a person is in addressing the conflict. Using an approach addressed by Dr. Kenneth Thomas, author of Conflict and Negotiation Processes in Organizations, there are five major conflict management styles and categorizes, defined based on the levels of cooperation and assertiveness associated with any given situation.

Competing (Forcing). (High assertiveness and low cooperativeness). The competing (forcing) style attempts to overwhelm an opponent with formal authority, threats, or the use of power.

Collaborating. (High assertiveness and high cooperativeness). The collaborating style uses an attempt to satisfy the concerns of both sides through honest discussion. Creative approaches to conflict reduction, such as sharing resources, may actually lead to both parties being materially better off. For the collaborating style to be successful, trust and openness are required of all participants. Collaborating involves behavior that seeks a 'win' position for both groups.

Accommodating. (Low assertiveness and high cooperativeness). The accommodating style often simply consists of giving in to another person's wishes.

Avoiding. (Low assertiveness and low cooperativeness). The avoiding style appears to indicate a neutral position of participants which can often lead to 'things working themselves out,' but can also result in an escalation of a situation by allowing it to go unresolved.

Compromising. (Some assertiveness and some cooperativeness). The compromising style requires a willingness of both parties to change, adjust, or give something up. Compromising involves behavior that seeks to partially satisfy both parties' desires and resolves the conflict.

Note: All situations are unique, depending on the individuals involved, the criticality of the issues, and the urgency of the situations. When considering each of the conflict management styles, consider the who, the stakes, and the situation to determine the best approach to take to resolve conflict.

2019 AFH-1

13.22. Conflict Management Techniques

There are a few techniques that can be used to minimize the impact that workplace conflict can have on individuals and on the organization. When considering the degree of cooperation, and the degree of assertiveness of those involved, leaders can determine how to categorize conflict and how to best manage it. Cooperation refers to how willing or unwilling a person or group is to satisfy the other's needs. Assertiveness refers to how passive or active a person is in addressing the conflict. Using an approach addressed by Dr. Kenneth Thomas, author of Conflict and Negotiation Processes in Organizations, there are five major conflict management styles and categorizes, defined based on the levels of cooperation and assertiveness associated with any given situation.

Competing (Forcing). (High assertiveness and low cooperativeness). The competing (forcing) style attempts to overwhelm an opponent with formal authority, threats, or the use of power.

Collaborating. (High assertiveness and high cooperativeness). The collaborating style uses an attempt to satisfy the concerns of both sides through honest discussion. Creative approaches to conflict reduction, such as sharing resources, may actually lead to both parties being materially better off. For the collaborating style to be successful, trust and openness are required of all participants. Collaborating involves behavior that seeks a 'win' position for both groups.

Accommodating. (Low assertiveness and high cooperativeness). The accommodating style often simply consists of giving in to another person's wishes.

Avoiding. (Low assertiveness and low cooperativeness). The avoiding style appears to indicate a neutral position of participants which can often lead to 'things working themselves out,' but can also result in an escalation of a situation by allowing it to go unresolved.

Compromising. (Some assertiveness and some cooperativeness). The compromising style requires a willingness of both parties to change, adjust, or give something up. Compromising involves behavior that seeks to partially satisfy both parties' desires and resolves the conflict.

Note: All situations are unique, depending on the individuals involved, the criticality of the issues, and the urgency of the situations. When considering each of the conflict management styles, consider the who, the stakes, and the situation to determine the best approach to take to resolve conflict.




Section 13B, Develops People

Paragraph 13.6., Leadership Responsibility, has no changes.

Paragraph 13.7., Leadership and Management, was edited. See below for changes.

Paragraph 13.8., Professional Associations, has no changes.

Note: This section was taken from 2019 AFH-1, Section 14A, Responsibility. The entire section was included in this year's edition except for the last paragraph, 14.4., Chief of Staff, United States Air Force Professional Reading Program.

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.6. Leadership Responsibility

As the old adage "a born leader" implies, there are individuals who were intended, inclined, or born to lead. On the other hand, leadership is often defined by a person's title or position of authority. In all actuality, leadership is an ability we can all develop, cultivate, and expand upon. Merriam-Webster's dictionary defines the word lead as, "to guide on a way especially by going in advance" or "to direct on a course or in a direction." A military leader is considered to be, "a person who directs a military force or unit" or "one who has commanding authority or influence." Leadership, as a moral quality put into action through a command or leadership role, can serve to move mountains...or move people over, around, or through mountains, whichever is required.

Another way of looking at leading in the Air Force can be recognized as the art and science of accomplishing the Air Force mission by motivating, influencing, and directing Airmen. This highlights two central elements, the mission, objective, or task to be accomplished; and the Airmen who will accomplish it. The science of leadership being observed and studied refers to the methods and understanding of what leadership is. The art of leadership, being personal and subjective, refers to the demonstration and application of leading.

2019 AFH-1

14.1. Leadership Responsibility

As the old adage "a born leader" implies, there are individuals who were intended, inclined, or born to lead. On the other hand, leadership is often defined by a person's title or position of authority. In all actuality, leadership is an ability we can all develop, cultivate, and expand upon. Merriam-Webster's dictionary defines the word lead as, "to guide on a way especially by going in advance" or "to direct on a course or in a direction." A military leader is considered to be, "a person who directs a military force or unit" or "one who has commanding authority or influence." Leadership, as a moral quality put into action through a command or leadership role, can serve to move mountains...or move people over, around, or through mountains, whichever is required.

Another way of looking at leading in the Air Force can be recognized as the art and science of accomplishing the Air Force mission by motivating, influencing, and directing Airmen. This highlights two central elements, the mission, objective, or task to be accomplished; and the Airmen who will accomplish it. The science of leadership being observed and studied refers to the methods and understanding of what leadership is. The art of leadership, being personal and subjective, refers to the demonstration and application of leading.

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.7. Leadership and Management

While leadership and management are separate topics in many respects, they go hand in hand in producing elements that promote mission success. Organizations need a strong balance of both.

"Management is getting people to do what needs to be done. Leadership is getting people to want to do what needs to be done."

- Warren G. Bennis, Ph.D.

A leader is a person who leads or commands a group, organization, or country. Terms often associated with leadership roles include flight leader, team leader, and squad leader. Warren G. Bennis, Founding Chair, The Leadership Institute, University of Southern California, labeled three primary behavioral leader characteristics as the abilities to motivate, develop, and inspire. Under this model, leaders motivate and inspire people to interact and understand one another as they move in the right direction by satisfying human needs for a sense of belonging (belongingness and love), recognition (esteem), self-esteem (esteem), and control over their lives (safety and security) which can lead to a sense of achievement (self-actualization). The model developed by Warren Bennis echoes Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory (Figure 14.1) for motivation which outlines the road to self-actualization.

Abraham Maslow was is a well-known psychologist who specialized in the theory of psychological health. He is most famous for his theory on the Hierarchy of Needs which outlines basic requirements that must be achieved before ultimately reaching self-actualization or fulfilling your highest potential. Based on Maslow's theory, in order to attempt success at one level, you must be successful in the previous. For example, if you are hungry or thirsty (physiological needs), you would not be able to focus on building relationships (belongingness) until you have located food and water. This theory translates to the work environment as the individual who is concerned about being kicked out of the Air Force (security) will not be able to focus on striving for achievements, which will ultimately prevent him from reaching his full potential (self-actualization).

A manager is a person responsible for controlling or administering all or part of a company or organization. Terms often associated with managerial roles include career field managers, major command functional managers, program managers, and project managers. Bennis labeled three primary behavioral characteristics of managers as administrators, maintainers, and controllers. Under this model, managers focus on tasks and aim to assert a level of control to drive people in the right direction.

- Generally, managers ensure the resources needed are readily available and efficiently used. Leaders launch and steer the organization toward the pursuit of goals and strategies.

- Managers are responsible for organizing projects, staffing positions with qualified individuals, communicating plans, delegating responsibilities, and devising systems to monitor implementation. Leaders support these actions by aligning the personnel's needs, wants, emotions, and aspirations with the task.

- Good management brings a degree of order and consistency to key issues like readiness, availability, and sustainment. Good leaders lead people to accomplish the mission.

- The best managers tend to become good leaders because they develop leadership abilities and skills through practicing good management techniques. Similarly, often an effective leader will also be found to be a good manager.

2019 AFH-1

14.2. Leadership and Management

While leadership and management are separate topics in many respects, they go hand in hand in producing elements that promote mission success. Organizations need a strong balance of both.

"Management is getting people to do what needs to be done. Leadership is getting people to want to do what needs to be done."

- Warren G. Bennis, Ph.D.

A leader is a person who leads or commands a group, organization, or country. Terms often associated with leadership roles include flight leader, team leader, and squad leader. Warren G. Bennis, Founding Chair, The Leadership Institute, University of Southern California, labeled three primary behavioral leader characteristics as the abilities to motivate, develop, and inspire. Under this model, leaders motivate and inspire people to interact and understand one another as they move in the right direction by satisfying human needs for a sense of achievement, belonging, recognition, self-esteem, and control over their lives.

A manager is a person responsible for controlling or administering all or part of a company or organization. Terms often associated with managerial roles include career field managers, major command functional managers, program managers, and project managers. Bennis labeled three primary behavioral characteristics of managers as administrators, maintainers, and controllers. Under this model, managers focus on tasks and aim to assert a level of control to drive people in the right direction.

- Generally, managers ensure the resources needed are readily available and efficiently used. Leaders launch and steer the organization toward the pursuit of goals and strategies.

- Managers are responsible for organizing projects, staffing positions with qualified individuals, communicating plans, delegating responsibilities, and devising systems to monitor implementation. Leaders support these actions by aligning the personnel's needs, wants, emotions, and aspirations with the task.

- Good management brings a degree of order and consistency to key issues like readiness, availability, and sustainment. Good leaders lead people to accomplish the mission.

- The best managers tend to become good leaders because they develop leadership abilities and skills through practicing good management techniques. Similarly, often an effective leader will also be found to be a good manager.

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13.8. Professional Associations

Private organizations develop professional skills and associations for individuals in many career fields and technical specialties. Membership in such associations may provide additional opportunities for leadership roles, public speaking, and mentoring, as well as broaden technical expertise. Many units have unofficial organizations, such as the squadron booster club and event planning committees. There are also organizations that allow members to join based on rank, such as the Junior Enlisted Airmen Council, 5/6 Counsel, Top III, and the Chiefs' Group. Taking an active role in these organizations is highly encouraged for personal and professional development.

2019 AFH-1

14.3. Professional Associations

Private organizations develop professional skills and associations for individuals in many career fields and technical specialties. Membership in such associations may provide additional opportunities for leadership roles, public speaking, and mentoring, as well as broaden technical expertise. Many units have unofficial organizations, such as the squadron booster club and event planning committees. There are also organizations that allow members to join based on rank, such as the Junior Enlisted Airmen Council, 5/6 Counsel, Top III, and the Chiefs' Group. Taking an active role in these organizations is highly encouraged for personal and professional development.




Section 13C, Service Mindset

Paragraph 13.9. - 13.18. (All of Section C): No Changes

Note: Paragraph 13.10., The Air Force Mentoring Program, continues to use the term, institutional, even though in paragraphs 6.1. - 6.5., and 14.1., and 14.5., the term, institutional, has been replaced by "foundational".

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13.9. The Leader as a Mentor

Mentoring is a process designed to help each individual reach his or her maximum potential. Air Force leaders have an inherent obligation and responsibility to mentor future leaders. Through mentoring, senior leaders pass on their experience and wisdom to junior members as well as philosophy, traditions, shared values, quality, and lessons learned.

Commanders and supervisors must be positive role models and make themselves available to Airmen who seek career guidance, counsel, and mentorship. They must take an active role in their Airmen's professional development by continually challenging them to grow, develop, and improve. At a minimum, a supervisor's mentoring consists of a discussion of performance, potential, and professional development plans during performance feedback sessions. Conversations should include promotion, professional military education, advanced degree work, physical fitness, personal goals and expectations, professional qualities, future assignments, and long-range plans.

"We make a living by what we get, we make a life by what we give."

- Winston Churchill

Mentoring is an ongoing process and perhaps the most powerful method leadership can use to shape the future. It helps prepare Airmen for the increased responsibilities they will assume as they progress in their careers. There are no limitations or stages of career development that would limit any individual from benefitting from the counsel of a mentor. Additionally, mentors are often appreciated by the mentees more than they will ever know.

2019 AFH-1

14.5. The Leader as a Mentor

Mentoring is a process designed to help each individual reach his or her maximum potential. Air Force leaders have an inherent obligation and responsibility to mentor future leaders. Through mentoring, senior leaders pass on their experience and wisdom to junior members as well as philosophy, traditions, shared values, quality, and lessons learned.

Commanders and supervisors must be positive role models and make themselves available to Airmen who seek career guidance, counsel, and mentorship. They must take an active role in their Airmen's professional development by continually challenging them to grow, develop, and improve. At a minimum, a supervisor's mentoring consists of a discussion of performance, potential, and professional development plans during performance feedback sessions. Conversations should include promotion, professional military education, advanced degree work, physical fitness, personal goals and expectations, professional qualities, future assignments, and long-range plans.

"We make a living by what we get, we make a life by what we give."

- Winston Churchill

Mentoring is an ongoing process and perhaps the most powerful method leadership can use to shape the future. It helps prepare Airmen for the increased responsibilities they will assume as they progress in their careers. There are no limitations or stages of career development that would limit any individual from benefitting from the counsel of a mentor. Additionally, mentors are often appreciated by the mentees more than they will ever know.

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13.10. The Air Force Mentoring Program

The Air Force mentoring program covers a wide range of areas, such as career guidance, professional development, leadership, Air Force history and heritage, airpower doctrine, strategic vision, and contributions to joint warfighting. Foremost, individuals must focus on Air Force institutional needs. The Air Force must develop people skilled in the employment and support of airpower and how this meets national security needs.

Mentors must distinguish between individual goals, career aspirations, and realistic expectations. Each individual defines a successful career, goal, or life accomplishment differently. There are numerous paths to meet individual career and success goals. Although the immediate supervisor or rater is the primary mentor, coach, counselor, guide, or role model for Airmen, subordinates may seek additional counseling and professional development advice from other sources or mentors as well. While there are several approaches mentors can take in the form of coach, counselor, advisor, and advocate, Air Force mentoring is governed by AFMAN 36-2643, Air Force Mentoring Program.

2019 AFH-1

14.6. The Air Force Mentoring Program

The Air Force mentoring program covers a wide range of areas, such as career guidance, professional development, leadership, Air Force history and heritage, airpower doctrine, strategic vision, and contributions to joint warfighting. Foremost, individuals must focus on Air Force institutional needs. The Air Force must develop people skilled in the employment and support of airpower and how this meets national security needs.

Mentors must distinguish between individual goals, career aspirations, and realistic expectations. Each individual defines a successful career, goal, or life accomplishment differently. There are numerous paths to meet individual career and success goals. Although the immediate supervisor or rater is the primary mentor, coach, counselor, guide, or role model for Airmen, subordinates may seek additional counseling and professional development advice from other sources or mentors as well. While there are several approaches mentors can take in the form of coach, counselor, advisor, and advocate, Air Force mentoring is governed by AFMAN 36-2643, Air Force Mentoring Program.

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13.11. The Mentoring Process

The mentoring model, in Figure 13.1., demonstrates the concepts of effective mentoring. The elements of effective mentoring, described here, correspond to the letters in the word itself.

M - E - N - T - O - R - I - N - G

Model. An effective mentor, serving as a role model, understands that actions speak much louder than words. The protégé is constantly observing and learning from the mentor. The opportunity to see how the mentor deals with a variety of situations is an important part of the mentoring process.

Empathize. Mentoring requires the ability to empathize and show genuine compassion for protégés. Mentors who remember what it was like when they were new and inexperienced may be more effective in assisting others in their professional development. Empathy cultivates bonds between mentors and protégés and fosters the mutual commitment that exemplifies mentoring.

Nurture. Nurturing emphasizes a caring attitude. Like a farmer tends to the field, the mentor nurtures the protégé, by investing ample time, patience, and effort. Mentors must make the time and effort to effectively mentor their protégés and provide the appropriate amounts of attention, training, and time for them to apply, internalize, and value what they have learned.

Teach. The skill of teaching may not come naturally to everyone, but knowledge and experience are valuable as mentors. Consider these five simple steps when teaching and training protégés: (1) organize the material into logical, systematic units of manageable size; (2) correct errors immediately; (3) frequently review previously covered material and relate the material to the current lesson; (4) include practical exercises to help the protégé exercise the newfound knowledge; and (5) evaluate the protégés' progress and provide detailed feedback.

Organize. Mentors must first be organized before helping others become organized. An organized mentor knows from the very beginning what he or she wants to achieve, and focuses on this goal. The time and effort spent organizing thoughts and materials into a logical, sequential plan aimed at a precisely defined target pays big dividends in the form of improved learning and developmental experiences for the protégé.

Respond. Mentoring is a two-way communication process that requires mentors to actively listen to the protégés' questions and provide useful and timely responses. Effective mentors must remain alert to recognize nonverbal behaviors and subtle communication cues that indicate the protégés' interest in certain areas. Mentors should be proactive, anticipate the needs, problems, and concerns of protégés, and address them immediately.

Inspire. More than a good role model, teacher, or ally, a genuine mentor is an inspirational mentor. Inspirational mentors have a profound impact on protégés that encourages them to transform into a more improved being. Inspiration is a characteristic that distinguishes leaders from managers.

Network. A good mentor introduces and connects a protégé with others who can provide increased guidance, support, resources, and opportunities. Networking is a vital function that helps protégés establish themselves in their professional community through a solid network of friends, acquaintances, and associates.

Goal-Set. Sometimes people lack the experience to understand the importance of setting goals or the expertise to establish specific, achievable, and realistic goals. Mentors must help their protégés understand why goals are important; establish short- and long-term goals that are specific, achievable, and realistic; and be available to assist them in achieving their goals.

2019 AFH-1

14.7. The Mentoring Process

The mentoring model, in Figure 14.1., demonstrates the concepts of effective mentoring. The elements of effective mentoring, described here, correspond to the letters in the word itself.

M - E - N - T - O - R - I - N - G

Model. An effective mentor, serving as a role model, understands that actions speak much louder than words. The protégé is constantly observing and learning from the mentor. The opportunity to see how the mentor deals with a variety of situations is an important part of the mentoring process.

Empathize. Mentoring requires the ability to empathize and show genuine compassion for protégés. Mentors who remember what it was like when they were new and inexperienced may be more effective in assisting others in their professional development. Empathy cultivates bonds between mentors and protégés and fosters the mutual commitment that exemplifies mentoring.

Nurture. Nurturing emphasizes a caring attitude. Like a farmer tends to the field, the mentor nurtures the protégé, by investing ample time, patience, and effort. Mentors must make the time and effort to effectively mentor their protégés and provide the appropriate amounts of attention, training, and time for them to apply, internalize, and value what they have learned.

Teach. The skill of teaching may not come naturally to everyone, but knowledge and experience are valuable as mentors. Consider these five simple steps when teaching and training protégés: (1) organize the material into logical, systematic units of manageable size; (2) correct errors immediately; (3) frequently review previously covered material and relate the material to the current lesson; (4) include practical exercises to help the protégé exercise the newfound knowledge; and (5) evaluate the protégés' progress and provide detailed feedback.

Organize. Mentors must first be organized before helping others become organized. An organized mentor knows from the very beginning what he or she wants to achieve, and focuses on this goal. The time and effort spent organizing thoughts and materials into a logical, sequential plan aimed at a precisely defined target pays big dividends in the form of improved learning and developmental experiences for the protégé.

Respond. Mentoring is a two-way communication process that requires mentors to actively listen to the protégés' questions and provide useful and timely responses. Effective mentors must remain alert to recognize nonverbal behaviors and subtle communication cues that indicate the protégés' interest in certain areas. Mentors should be proactive, anticipate the needs, problems, and concerns of protégés, and address them immediately.

Inspire. More than a good role model, teacher, or ally, a genuine mentor is an inspirational mentor. Inspirational mentors have a profound impact on protégés that encourages them to transform into a more improved being. Inspiration is a characteristic that distinguishes leaders from managers.

Network. A good mentor introduces and connects a protégé with others who can provide increased guidance, support, resources, and opportunities. Networking is a vital function that helps protégés establish themselves in their professional community through a solid network of friends, acquaintances, and associates.

Goal-Set. Sometimes people lack the experience to understand the importance of setting goals or the expertise to establish specific, achievable, and realistic goals. Mentors must help their protégés understand why goals are important; establish short- and long-term goals that are specific, achievable, and realistic; and be available to assist them in achieving their goals.

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13.12. The Leader as a Counselor

Being involved in an Airman's development and growth is essential to a leader's influence and credibility. Leaders should seek to develop and improve counseling abilities to ensure effective counseling is provided to Airmen. Counseling can be conducted for a number of reasons, ranging from something as simple as discussing steps made toward achieving a goal, to something as complex as addressing a significant life changing event.

2019 AFH-1

14.8. The Leader as a Counselor

Being involved in an Airman's development and growth is essential to a leader's influence and credibility. Leaders should seek to develop and improve counseling abilities to ensure effective counseling is provided to Airmen. Counseling can be conducted for a number of reasons, ranging from something as simple as discussing steps made toward achieving a goal, to something as complex as addressing a significant life changing event.

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13.13. When to Counsel

The key to successful counseling is to conduct the counseling as close to the event as possible. Good leaders take advantage of naturally occurring events as opportunities for providing feedback. Leaders must be genuinely interested in Airmen and understand how involvement can help personally and professionally. Listening and providing assistance may greatly enhance an Airman's ability to deal with a situation. Professional growth counseling is often conducted while reviewing an Airman's duty performance during a certain period and setting standards for the next period, typically, but not only during Airman's Comprehensive Assessment (ACA) feedback sessions. Leaders may conduct counseling for superior or substandard duty performance or behavior. Leaders may conduct crisis counseling to help an Airman through the initial shock after receiving negative news. Referral counseling may follow crisis counseling, which can help Airmen work through a personal situation and may serve as preventive counseling before a situation becomes a problem. Referral counseling often involves agencies, such as legal services, religious affairs, or an alcohol and drug counselor.

2019 AFH-1

14.9. When to Counsel

The key to successful counseling is to conduct the counseling as close to the event as possible. Good leaders take advantage of naturally occurring events as opportunities for providing feedback. Leaders must be genuinely interested in Airmen and understand how involvement can help personally and professionally. Listening and providing assistance may greatly enhance an Airman's ability to deal with a situation. Professional growth counseling is often conducted while reviewing an Airman's duty performance during a certain period and setting standards for the next period, typically, but not only during Airman's Comprehensive Assessment (ACA) feedback sessions. Leaders may conduct counseling for superior or substandard duty performance or behavior. Leaders may conduct crisis counseling to help an Airman through the initial shock after receiving negative news. Referral counseling may follow crisis counseling, which can help Airmen work through a personal situation and may serve as preventive counseling before a situation becomes a problem. Referral counseling often involves agencies, such as legal services, religious affairs, or an alcohol and drug counselor.

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13.14. Approaches to Counseling

An effective leader approaches each Airman as an individual. Different people and different situations require different counseling approaches. Three approaches to counseling include nondirective, directive, and combined. The major difference between the approaches to counseling is the degree to which the Airman participates and interacts during a counseling session. Figure 13.2. summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.

Nondirective. The nondirective counseling approach is preferred for most counseling sessions. During the counseling session, the leader listens to the situation before helping the individual make decisions or giving advice. The leader encourages the Airman to explore and clarify important points to better understand the situation. During nondirective counseling, the leader should refrain from providing solutions or rendering opinions, instead, maintain focus on individual and organizational goals and objectives. Also, ensure the Airman's plan of action aligns with those goals and objectives.

Directive. The directive counseling approach works best to correct simple problems, make on-the-spot corrections, and correct specific aspects of duty performance. The leader using the directive style directs a course of action for the Airman. The directive approach is best when time is short, when the solution is clear, or if an Airman has limited problem-solving skills and needs guidance.

Combined. The combined counseling approach is a blend of both the directive and nondirective approaches, adjusting them to articulate what is best for the situation. With the combined approach, the leader emphasizes the Airman's planning and decision-making responsibilities by listening, offering options, helping analyze possible solutions, encouraging the Airman to decide which solution is best, and assisting with the development of a plan of action.

2019 AFH-1

14.10. Approaches to Counseling

An effective leader approaches each Airman as an individual. Different people and different situations require different counseling approaches. Three approaches to counseling include nondirective, directive, and combined. The major difference between the approaches to counseling is the degree to which the Airman participates and interacts during a counseling session. Figure 14.2. summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.

Nondirective. The nondirective counseling approach is preferred for most counseling sessions. During the counseling session, the leader listens to the situation before helping the individual make decisions or giving advice. The leader encourages the Airman to explore and clarify important points to better understand the situation. During nondirective counseling, the leader should refrain from providing solutions or rendering opinions, instead, maintain focus on individual and organizational goals and objectives. Also, ensure the Airman's plan of action aligns with those goals and objectives.

Directive. The directive counseling approach works best to correct simple problems, make on-the-spot corrections, and correct specific aspects of duty performance. The leader using the directive style directs a course of action for the Airman. The directive approach is best when time is short, when the solution is clear, or if an Airman has limited problem-solving skills and needs guidance.

Combined. The combined counseling approach is a blend of both the directive and nondirective approaches, adjusting them to articulate what is best for the situation. With the combined approach, the leader emphasizes the Airman's planning and decision-making responsibilities by listening, offering options, helping analyze possible solutions, encouraging the Airman to decide which solution is best, and assisting with the development of a plan of action.

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13.15. The Counseling Process

One of the most important things a leader can do when conducting a counseling session, regardless of purpose, is to ensure the intent is established and the environment is appropriate. Although the length of time required will vary, when possible, conduct counseling during the duty day, aim for the counseling session to last less than one hour, and be prepared to schedule a second session, if necessary. Both the leader and the Airman should clearly understand why, where, and when the counseling session will take place and be prepared to discuss main points, pertinent information, and plausible, obtainable goals. Finally, the environment should have minimal interruptions and be free from distractions to show respect for the Airman and the conversation.

Even when you have not prepared for formal counseling, you can follow the four basic components of a counseling session: state the purpose, discuss the issues, develop a plan of action, and record the plan. These steps can be as simple or as elaborate as the situation requires. Also, schedule any future meetings, at least tentatively, before closing the session. Appropriate measures to consider following the counseling may include a follow-up session, making referrals, informing the chain of command, and taking corrective measures.

2019 AFH-1

14.11. The Counseling Process

One of the most important things a leader can do when conducting a counseling session, regardless of purpose, is to ensure the intent is established and the environment is appropriate. Although the length of time required will vary, when possible, conduct counseling during the duty day, aim for the counseling session to last less than one hour, and be prepared to schedule a second session, if necessary. Both the leader and the Airman should clearly understand why, where, and when the counseling session will take place and be prepared to discuss main points, pertinent information, and plausible, obtainable goals. Finally, the environment should have minimal interruptions and be free from distractions to show respect for the Airman and the conversation.

Even when you have not prepared for formal counseling, you can follow the four basic components of a counseling session: state the purpose, discuss the issues, develop a plan of action, and record the plan. These steps can be as simple or as elaborate as the situation requires. Also, schedule any future meetings, at least tentatively, before closing the session. Appropriate measures to consider following the counseling may include a follow-up session, making referrals, informing the chain of command, and taking corrective measures.

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13.16. The Leader as a Coach

Effective leaders often serve as coaches who must thoroughly understand the strengths, weaknesses, and professional goals of members of their teams. Leaders coach Airmen similar to the way athletic coaches improve their teams, by setting goals, developing and implementing plans of action, and providing oversight and motivation throughout the process.

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14.12. The Leader as a Coach

Effective leaders often serve as coaches who must thoroughly understand the strengths, weaknesses, and professional goals of members of their teams. Leaders coach Airmen similar to the way athletic coaches improve their teams, by setting goals, developing and implementing plans of action, and providing oversight and motivation throughout the process.

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13.17. Vision

Air Force leaders must have a collective vision -a vision that empowers, inspires, challenges, and motivates followers to the highest levels of commitment and a continuously improving environment. Airmen are responsible for conducting and maintaining the asymmetric advantages and capabilities the Air Force delivers in air, space, and cyberspace. We need to ensure we are also driving efficiencies and improvements across the board. Therefore, we must use the right tools and techniques to address problems, leverage opportunities for improvement, and employ our greatest resource -innovative, dedicated Airmen.

Vision is helping people believe they can accomplish goals in the anticipation of a better future as a result of their efforts. Inspiration is one way to convey vision. To better understand this concept, consider President John F. Kennedy's announcement in 1961 of the United States intention to put a man on the moon within the decade. Perhaps an impossible task by most standards, and yet it was achieved. The dramatic announcement and the infectious inspiration helped achieve the goal.

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16.3. Vision

Air Force leaders must have a collective vision -a vision that empowers, inspires, challenges, and motivates followers to the highest levels of commitment and a continuously improving environment. Airmen are responsible for conducting and maintaining the asymmetric advantages and capabilities the Air Force delivers in air, space, and cyberspace. We need to ensure we are also driving efficiencies and improvements across the board. Therefore, we must use the right tools and techniques to address problems, leverage opportunities for improvement, and employ our greatest resource -innovative, dedicated Airmen.

Vision is helping people believe they can accomplish goals in the anticipation of a better future as a result of their efforts. Inspiration is one way to convey vision. To better understand this concept, consider President John F. Kennedy's announcement in 1961 of the United States intention to put a man on the moon within the decade. Perhaps an impossible task by most standards, and yet it was achieved. The dramatic announcement and the infectious inspiration helped achieve the goal.

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13.18. Implementing the Vision

While senior leadership has the authority and responsibility to change the system as a whole, leaders at lower levels direct supervisors and subordinates to seek and perform tasks more appropriate to the challenges of the new age. To do this, leaders must communicate the vision, bolster Airmen's courage and understanding, and solicit ideas and suggestions.

"A great leader's courage to fulfill his vision comes from passion, not position."

- John C. Maxwell The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership

Every leader needs to establish an enduring vision. As technology and our environment continue to evolve, our vision and leadership style must keep pace. A vision that meets the organization's needs at the time of implementation, over time is likely to require re-vision, therefore the vision forming process should be continual. On the other hand, the vision should not be arbitrarily modified. If the vision works and is aligned with environmental and technological developments,the vision should be affirmed and supported.

The ability to form mental images of a possible outcome and translate these images into a reality through leadership and action is a unique feature of the human brain. A leader should constantly anticipate the influences, trends, and demands that affect the vision over the next month, year, and even decade. To be of realistic value, the vision must be logical, deductive, and plausible. Vision must be specific enough to provide real guidance to people, but unbounded enough to encourage initiative and demonstrate relevancy to a variety of conditions. Leaders with vision are compelled to overcome complacency and refuse to accept the norm of doing things as they have always been done.

2019 AFH-1

16.4. Implementing the Vision

While senior leadership has the authority and responsibility to change the system as a whole, leaders at lower levels direct supervisors and subordinates to seek and perform tasks more appropriate to the challenges of the new age. To do this, leaders must communicate the vision, bolster Airmen's courage and understanding, and solicit ideas and suggestions.

"A great leader's courage to fulfill his vision comes from passion, not position."

- John C. Maxwell
The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership

Every leader needs to establish an enduring vision. As technology and our environment continue to evolve, our vision and leadership style must keep pace. A vision that meets the organization's needs at the time of implementation, over time is likely to require re-vision, therefore the vision-forming process should be continual. On the other hand, the vision should not be arbitrarily modified. If the vision works and is aligned with environmental and technological developments, the vision should be affirmed and supported.

The ability to form mental images of a possible outcome and translate these images into a reality through leadership and action is a unique feature of the human brain. A leader should constantly anticipate the influences, trends, and demands that affect the vision over the next month, year, and even decade. To be of realistic value, the vision must be logical, deductive, and plausible. Vision must be specific enough to provide real guidance to people, but unbounded enough to encourage initiative and demonstrate relevancy to a variety of conditions. Leaders with vision are compelled to overcome complacency and refuse to accept the norm of doing things as they have always been done.




Section 13D, Leadership

Paragraphs 13.19. - 13.26. (All of Section D): No Changes

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.19. Leadership Development

Leaders must effectively influence others, whether through expectation, delegation, or empowerment. Qualities that facilitate followership and ensure credibility and mutual respect with Airmen are also important. Three qualities that help leaders gain respect and credibility and have a positive influence on others are self-awareness, cultural awareness, and empathy.

Self-Awareness. Leaders must be fully aware of their own values, needs, and biases before counseling Airmen. Self-aware leaders are more likely to act consistently with their own values and actions and are less likely to project their own biases onto Airmen.

Cultural Awareness. Leaders need to be aware of the similarities and differences between individuals of different cultural backgrounds and how these factors may influence values, perspectives, and actions, especially if they generate concerns within the organization.

Empathy. Showing empathy is being understanding of and sensitive to another person's feelings, thoughts, and experiences to the point that you can almost feel or experience them yourself. Leaders with empathy put themselves in another's shoes and see a situation from their perspective. Understanding another's position can help the development of a plan of action -one that works.

2019 AFH-1

14.14. Leadership Development

Leaders must effectively influence others, whether through expectation, delegation, or empowerment. Qualities that facilitate followership and ensure credibility and mutual respect with Airmen are also important. Three qualities that help leaders gain respect and credibility and have a positive influence on others are self-awareness, cultural awareness, and empathy.

Self-Awareness. Leaders must be fully aware of their own values, needs, and biases before counseling Airmen. Self-aware leaders are more likely to act consistently with their own values and actions and are less likely to project their own biases onto Airmen.

Cultural Awareness. Leaders need to be aware of the similarities and differences between individuals of different cultural backgrounds and how these factors may influence values, perspectives, and actions, especially if they generate concerns within the organization.

Empathy. Showing empathy is being understanding of and sensitive to another person's feelings, thoughts, and experiences to the point that you can almost feel or experience them yourself. Leaders with empathy put themselves in another's shoes and see a situation from their perspective. Understanding another's position can help the development of a plan of action -one that works.

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.20. Leadership Self-Evaluation

To successfully perform as a responsible leader, one must understand what is expected of them. The following is a list of questions that offer a perspective for what is expected of aspiring leaders in developing particular skills. Only the most honest responses will reveal one's definitive strengths and potential weaknesses. Pause and consider the importance of the following questions.

- Do I have the courage to make tough decisions and stand by them?

- Am I flexible when dealing with change?

- Can I remain enthusiastic and cheerful when I am confronted with seemingly impossible tasks?

- Am I willing to do my best with what seem to be inadequate means?

- Can I inspire people to achieve outstanding results?

- Am I willing to take reasonable risks to allow my Airmen to grow and become more productive?

- Am I willing to let my Airmen be creative?

- Does my manner invite communication?

- Do I really listen and withhold judgment until I have all the facts?

- Am I willing to accept my Airmen's failures as my own and recognize their successes as theirs?

- Am I able to do many things at one time to manage a complex job?

- Can I carry out orders as well as give them?

2019 AFH-1

14.15. Leadership Self-Evaluation

To successfully perform as a responsible leader, one must understand what is expected of them. The following is a list of questions that offer a perspective for what is expected of aspiring leaders in developing particular skills. Only the most honest responses will reveal one's definitive strengths and potential weaknesses. Pause and consider the importance of the following questions.

- Do I have the courage to make tough decisions and stand by them?

- Am I flexible when dealing with change?

- Can I remain enthusiastic and cheerful when I am confronted with seemingly impossible tasks?

- Am I willing to do my best with what seem to be inadequate means?

- Can I inspire people to achieve outstanding results?

- Am I willing to take reasonable risks to allow my Airmen to grow and become more productive?

- Am I willing to let my Airmen be creative?

- Does my manner invite communication?

- Do I really listen and withhold judgment until I have all the facts?

- Am I willing to accept my Airmen's failures as my own and recognize their successes as theirs?

- Am I able to do many things at one time to manage a complex job?

- Can I carry out orders as well as give them?

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.21. Leadership Milestones

Life in the military incorporates a perpetual requirement for continued development. Effective leaders must accept the responsibility of being both a master student and a master teacher by embracing the role of both follower and leader. Setting high, attainable standards provides opportunities for continual growth, as well as guidance and feedback. Giving Airmen a goal and inspiration for developing and performing to their best ability is a leader's direct line to developing leaders of tomorrow. In business, successful corporations actively seek out people with leadership potential and expose them to career experiences designed to develop their skills. They also value a combination of maturity, experience, and untapped potential as a valuable asset to any organization.

Valuing Experience. Leaders foster professional growth by insisting their Airmen focus attention on the aspects of a situation, mission, or project they control, setting the stage for some adventure and providing challenging and enlightening experiences. As leaders progress and develop themselves, it is just as important to allow Airmen to do the same while growing a sense of confidence in their skills and abilities.

Fostering Growth. The role of the leader in fostering growth is to identify and analyze knowledge and improvement opportunities. This will ensure advancements are permanent and pervasive, not temporary or limited. Leaders encourage the learning process by formally recognizing individualand unit successes, no matter how large or small.

Facing Challenges. Developing Airmen for leadership positions requires consistent exposure to challenges with gradual increases in responsibility over long periods of time. Identifying people with leadership potential early in their careers and then determining the appropriate developmental challenges for them is the first step. Leaders must recognize the capabilities of each Airman in their unit or organization. Those capabilities may include any skills, talents, or experiences the Airman may have that can contribute to current and future mission accomplishment.

Professional Development. Leaders must also diagnose the developmental needs of Airmen, then assist them with developmental needs that fulfill current or future jobs or roles and responsibilities. Professional development needs may include off-duty education, professional military education, specific skills training, professional development seminars, and communication skills.

Personal Development. Personal developmental needs may include relationships, interpersonal skills, and off-duty education. Today's effective leaders had opportunities early in their careers that required them to lead, take risks, and learn from their triumphs and failures.

Dealing with Setbacks. To learn and improve, people need to be encouraged to try new things. Airmen count on the experience and understanding of strong leaders in dealing with setbacks. An Airman's dedication to improving his or her abilities is quite a valuable asset to an organization. Followers must remain optimistic, even in times of adversity.

Dealing with Change. Leaders must learn as much as possible about a change before dealing with the change process. Furthermore, they must learn how to deal with emotions often associated with change. The people supporting these processes must be motivated to meet the challenge and support the change that is being implemented. To achieve that, leaders must maintain a clear understanding of the present and a clear focus on the future.

2019 AFH-1

14.16. Leadership Milestones

Life in the military incorporates a perpetual requirement for continued development. Effective leaders must accept the responsibility of being both a master student and a master teacher by embracing the role of both follower and leader. Setting high, attainable standards provides opportunities for continual growth, as well as guidance and feedback. Giving Airmen a goal and inspiration for developing and performing to their best ability is a leader's direct line to developing leaders of tomorrow. In business, successful corporations actively seek out people with leadership potential and expose them to career experiences designed to develop their skills. They also value a combination of maturity, experience, and untapped potential as a valuable asset to any organization.

Valuing Experience. Leaders foster professional growth by insisting their Airmen focus attention on the aspects of a situation, mission, or project they control, setting the stage for some adventure and providing challenging and enlightening experiences. As leaders progress and develop themselves, it is just as important to allow Airmen to do the same while growing a sense of confidence in their skills and abilities.

Fostering Growth. The role of the leader in fostering growth is to identify and analyze knowledge and improvement opportunities. This will ensure advancements are permanent and pervasive, not temporary or limited. Leaders encourage the learning process by formally recognizing individual and unit successes, no matter how large or small.

Facing Challenges. Developing Airmen for leadership positions requires consistent exposure to challenges with gradual increases in responsibility over long periods of time. Identifying people with leadership potential early in their careers and then determining the appropriate developmental challenges for them is the first step. Leaders must recognize the capabilities of each Airman in their unit or organization. Those capabilities may include any skills, talents, or experiences the Airman may have that can contribute to current and future mission accomplishment.

Professional Development. Leaders must also diagnose the developmental needs of Airmen, then assist them with developmental needs that fulfill current or future jobs or roles and responsibilities. Professional development needs may include off-duty education, professional military education, specific skills training, professional development seminars, and communication skills.

Personal Development. Personal developmental needs may include relationships, interpersonal skills, and off-duty education. Today's effective leaders had opportunities early in their careers that required them to lead, take risks, and learn from their triumphs and failures.

Dealing with Setbacks. To learn and improve, people need to be encouraged to try new things. Airmen count on the experience and understanding of strong leaders in dealing with setbacks. An Airman's dedication to improving his or her abilities is quite a valuable asset to an organization. Followers must remain optimistic, even in times of adversity.

Dealing with Change. Leaders must learn as much as possible about a change before dealing with the change process. Furthermore, they must learn how to deal with emotions often associated with change. The people supporting these processes must be motivated to meet the challenge and support the change that is being implemented. To achieve that, leaders must maintain a clear understanding of the present and a clear focus on the future.

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.22. Leadership Styles

There are no secrets or magic formulas to successful leadership. Leadership is a responsibility that requires an active role in engaging with individuals and teams to align their efforts with personal as well as organizational success. Although the best advice is to just be yourself, ambitious and aspiring leaders can always benefit from the wise words of others. In 1976, as the Pacific Air Forces Command Commander, General Louis L. Wilson, Jr., provided some timeless advice.

Be Tough. Set your standards high and insist that your people measure up. Have the courage to correct those who fail to do so. In the long run, your people will be happier. Almost certainly morale will be higher, your outfit better, and your people prouder.

Get Out from Behind Your Desk. See for yourself what is going on in your work center. Your people will see that you are interested in their problems, work conditions, and welfare. Many of your people problems will go away if you practice this point.

Search Out the Problems. If you think there are no problems in your organization, you may be wrong. Your job is to find them. Foster an environment that encourages people to bring problems to you that they are unable to solve for themselves.

Find the Critical Path to Success. Get personally involved in issues on a priority basis. Let your influence be felt on make-or-break issues in your organization. Avoid the activity trap -do not spend your valuable time on inconsequential or trivial matters. Weigh in where it counts.

Be Sensitive. Listen to your people. Communicate with them and be perceptive to their needs. Learn to recognize problems and seek out ideas. Be innovative. Recognize that effective communication involves shared perceptions. Do not be afraid to empathize when necessary.

Do Not Take Things for Granted. Do not assume things have been fixed -look for yourself. Furthermore, the probability is high that fixed problems will recur, so monitor your processes.

Do Not Alibi. Remember, you and your people will never be perfect. People will make mistakes, so do not be defensive about things that are wrong. Nothing is more disgusting than the individual who can do no wrong and has an alibi for anything and everything that goes awry.

Do Not Procrastinate. Do not put off hard decisions, they will not be any easier tomorrow. This does not mean you should make precipitous or unreasonable decisions just to be prompt; however, once you have arrived at a decision, get on with it.

Do Not Tolerate Incompetence. Once people demonstrate laziness, disinterest, or an inability to do the job, you must have the courage to terminate their assignments. You cannot afford to do less. When your people do good work, recognize and encourage them. They will likely do even better.

Be Honest. You must create an atmosphere of trust and confidence. When talking to your people, be candid and insist that they do likewise. They set their behavior patterns based upon your example. Nothing is more disastrous than half-truths. Finally, be honest with yourself -do not gimmick reports and figures to make things look good on paper.

2019 AFH-1

14.17. Leadership Styles

There are no secrets or magic formulas to successful leadership. Leadership is a responsibility that requires an active role in engaging with individuals and teams to align their efforts with personal as well as organizational success. Although the best advice is to just be yourself, ambitious and aspiring leaders can always benefit from the wise words of others. In 1976, as the Pacific Air Forces Command Commander, General Louis L. Wilson, Jr., provided some timeless advice.

Be Tough. Set your standards high and insist that your people measure up. Have the courage to correct those who fail to do so. In the long run, your people will be happier. Almost certainly morale will be higher, your outfit better, and your people prouder.

Get Out from Behind Your Desk. See for yourself what is going on in your work center. Your people will see that you are interested in their problems, work conditions, and welfare. Many of your people problems will go away if you practice this point.

Search Out the Problems. If you think there are no problems in your organization, you may be wrong. Your job is to find them. Foster an environment that encourages people to bring problems to you that they are unable to solve for themselves.

Find the Critical Path to Success. Get personally involved in issues on a priority basis. Let your influence be felt on make-or-break issues in your organization. Avoid the activity trap -do not spend your valuable time on inconsequential or trivial matters. Weigh in where it counts.

Be Sensitive. Listen to your people. Communicate with them and be perceptive to their needs. Learn to recognize problems and seek out ideas. Be innovative. Recognize that effective communication involves shared perceptions. Do not be afraid to empathize when necessary.

Do Not Take Things for Granted. Do not assume things have been fixed -look for yourself. Furthermore, the probability is high that fixed problems will recur, so monitor your processes.

Do Not Alibi. Remember, you and your people will never be perfect. People will make mistakes, so do not be defensive about things that are wrong. Nothing is more disgusting than the individual who can do no wrong and has an alibi for anything and everything that goes awry.

Do Not Procrastinate. Do not put off hard decisions, they will not be any easier tomorrow. This does not mean you should make precipitous or unreasonable decisions just to be prompt; however, once you have arrived at a decision, get on with it.

Do Not Tolerate Incompetence. Once people demonstrate laziness, disinterest, or an inability to do the job, you must have the courage to terminate their assignments. You cannot afford to do less. When your people do good work, recognize and encourage them. They will likely do even better.

Be Honest. You must create an atmosphere of trust and confidence. When talking to your people, be candid and insist that they do likewise. They set their behavior patterns based upon your example. Nothing is more disastrous than half-truths. Finally, be honest with yourself -do not gimmick reports and figures to make things look good on paper.

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.23. The Power of Leadership

The concept of power in the workforce has many positive aspects, and everyone can learn to harness different sources of individual power, particularly when in a leadership role. Taken from Ken Blanchard's Points of Power, Situational Self Leadership, developing one's own sources of power enables leaders to be less dependent on others, thus allowing them to take initiative and make greater contributions in their jobs. Although the concept of power sometimes brings to mind such associations as coercion, manipulation, and even corruption, this does not have to be the case when the right people are put in the right leadership positions. It is helpful to develop an understanding that "the sole advantage of power is the ability to do more good." Thus, if you want to do more good for the people around you and for the organization, rather than rely on one aspect of power where you are strongest, take advantage of opportunities to apply various aspects of power in varying circumstances where most appropriate.

Position power. Position power is inherent in the authority of the position you have. Your position power may be represented when your business card has a title printed on it that indicates you have the power to manage people or command resources.

Task power. Task power is power that stems from being good at a particular task and being able to help others with a process or procedure they may be responsible for.

Personal power. Personal power comes from your personal character attributes, such as strength of character, passion, inspiration, or a personal vision of the future. Personal power is further enhanced by the strength of your interpersonal skills, such as your ability to communicate well and to be persuasive with others.

Relationship power. Relationship power comes from association with others through friendship, familiarity with a colleague, cultivation of a relationship, preferential treatment, or reciprocity (trading favors).

Knowledge power. Knowledge power is about having expertise in an area, often through a special skill or group of skills. It is also evidenced by having certain degrees or certifications indicating special training. Knowledge power can generally be transferred within jobs or organizations.

2019 AFH-1

14.18. The Power of Leadership

The concept of power in the workforce has many positive aspects, and everyone can learn to harness different sources of individual power, particularly when in a leadership role. Taken from Ken Blanchard's Points of Power, Situational Self Leadership, developing one's own sources of power enables leaders to be less dependent on others, thus allowing them to take initiative and make greater contributions in their jobs. Although the concept of power sometimes brings to mind such associations as coercion, manipulation, and even corruption, this does not have to be the case when the right people are put in the right leadership positions. It is helpful to develop an understanding that "the sole advantage of power is the ability to do more good." Thus, if you want to do more good for the people around you and for the organization, rather than rely on one aspect of power where you are strongest, take advantage of opportunities to apply various aspects of power in varying circumstances where most appropriate.

Position power. Position power is inherent in the authority of the position you have. Your position power may be represented when your business card has a title printed on it that indicates you have the power to manage people or command resources.

Task power. Task power is power that stems from being good at a particular task and being able to help others with a process or procedure they may be responsible for.

Personal power. Personal power comes from your personal character attributes, such as strength of character, passion, inspiration, or a personal vision of the future. Personal power is further enhanced by the strength of your interpersonal skills, such as your ability to communicate well and to be persuasive with others.

Relationship power. Relationship power comes from association with others through friendship, familiarity with a colleague, cultivation of a relationship, preferential treatment, or reciprocity (trading favors).

Knowledge power. Knowledge power is about having expertise in an area, often through a special skill or group of skills. It is also evidenced by having certain degrees or certifications indicating special training. Knowledge power can generally be transferred within jobs or organizations.

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.24. Full Range Leadership Development

A full range of leadership behaviors is essential in today's complex world. Today's Air Force depends on highly effective Airmen with the flexibility and capability to operate throughout a spectrum of leadership styles. Full Range Leadership Development (FRLD) requires leadership to be viewed as a system made up of three core elements: the leader, the follower, and the situation. Success of FRLD relies not only on the leader's actions, but also an accurate understanding of the follower and the situation, and requires today's leaders to be willing to engage in several ways.

- Develop relationships with leadership, peers, and subordinates.

- Take advantage of opportunities as they become available.

- Efficiently use available resources.

- Properly evaluate situations and the performance of followers.

- Reward appropriately (and discipline accordingly).

- Identify improvement areas in one's self, followers, and the work place.

2019 AFH-1

14.19. Full Range Leadership Development

A full range of leadership behaviors is essential in today's complex world. Today's Air Force depends on highly effective Airmen with the flexibility and capability to operate throughout a spectrum of leadership styles. Full Range Leadership Development (FRLD) requires leadership to be viewed as a system made up of three core elements: the leader, the follower, and the situation. Success of FRLD relies not only on the leader's actions, but also an accurate understanding of the follower and the situation, and requires today's leaders to be willing to engage in several ways.

- Develop relationships with leadership, peers, and subordinates.

- Take advantage of opportunities as they become available.

- Efficiently use available resources.

- Properly evaluate situations and the performance of followers.

- Reward appropriately (and discipline accordingly).

- Identify improvement areas in one's self, followers, and the work place.

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.25. Full Range Leadership Development Model (FRLD)

The FRLD model includes leadership behaviors ranging from the passive, less effective laissez-faire behavior, to the more active and effective transformational leadership behavior. Developing leadership behaviors begins by understanding each of them and knowing when or when not to apply them. In addition, possessing the flexibility and capability to implement the appropriate leadership style successfully is critical to leading others.

Laissez-Faire. Laissez-faire leaders view the development and needs of their subordinates as someone else's concern. They tend to abandon their responsibilities and remain indifferent toward important issues. They are hesitant to make decisions and are usually absent from their place of work, which negatively affects relationships with peers and subordinates.

Management by Exception-Passive. Management by exception-passive is an "if it's not broke, don't fix it" leadership style. Here, leaders elect to sit back, observe, and wait for things to go wrong before taking action. They intervene only when policies or rules are broken. Management by exception-passive is a little more effective than laissez-faire, but only because subordinates know that leadership will hold them accountable if they fail to meet standards of performance or comply with policies and procedures.

Management by Exception-Active. Management by exception-active is a leadership style that aims to keep personnel and processes in control by monitoring and governing subordinates through forced compliance with rules, regulations, and expectations for meeting performance standards. Management by exception-active exists in a structured system with detailed instructions, careful observation, and very active supervision. Furthermore, this leadership behavior reduces organizational uncertainties, avoids unnecessary risks, and ensures important goals are being achieved. This transactional leadership behavior reduces the temptation for employees to avoid their duties or act unethically and aids members in meeting defined performance objectives.

Contingent Rewards. Contingent rewards is a transactional leadership style that involves the constructive transaction between leaders and followers. These transactions are contracts or agreements where the leader sets goals, identifies ways for the subordinate to reach these goals, and supports the follower along the way. The follower is then required to perform their assigned tasks to a specified performance level. When the follower achieves the leader's expectations, the leader reinforces the positive behavior by providing a reward. In other words, the reward is contingent upon the follower performing assigned tasks to expectations.

Transformational Leadership. Transformational leadership is a style of leadership that is defined by the application of offering followers a vision and inspiring their mission. This type of leadership inspires followers to exceed their goals and promotes positive, meaningful changes through intrinsic motivation and encourages others to act because they want to. To motivate intrinsically, a transformational leader must consider ways to get others to embrace ideas, strategies, and initiatives. There are four components of transformational leadership: individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, idealized influence, and inspirational motivation.

- Individualized Consideration (Nurturing). Individualized consideration is where leaders treat their followers as individuals with different needs, abilities, and aspirations and not just as a part of a group of subordinates. They empathize with and support each follower while maintaining healthy communication. Using individualized consideration, leaders 'nurture' followers by acting as mentor or coach.

- Intellectual Stimulation (Thinking). Intellectual stimulation is the degree to which leaders value their subordinates' rationality and intellect by seeking different perspectives and considering opposing points of view. Using intellectual stimulation, leaders stimulate and encourage creativity in their followers, encourage followers to be independent thinkers, and are not afraid to take risks and solicit ideas from their followers.

- Inspirational Motivation (Charming). Inspirational motivation is when leaders are involved with developing and articulating visions that paint an optimistic and enthusiastic picture of the future that is appealing and inspiring to followers. These visions elevate performance expectations and inspire followers to put forth extra effort to achieve the leader's vision.

- Idealized Influence (Influencing). Transformational leaders are charismatic and act as positive role models who "walk the walk." They exhibit high levels of moral behavior, virtues, and character strengths, as well as a strong work ethic. They represent the organization's values, beliefs, and purpose in both words and actions and set aside personal interests for the sake of the group.

2019 AFH-1

14.20. Full Range Leadership Development Model

The FRLD model includes leadership behaviors ranging from the passive, less effective laissez-faire behavior, to the more active and effective transformational leadership behavior. Developing leadership behaviors begins by understanding each of them and knowing when or when not to apply them. In addition, possessing the flexibility and capability to implement the appropriate leadership style successfully is critical to leading others.

Laissez-Faire. Laissez-faire leaders view the development and needs of their subordinates as someone else's concern. They tend to abandon their responsibilities and remain indifferent toward important issues. They are hesitant to make decisions and are usually absent from their place of work, which negatively affects relationships with peers and subordinates.

Management by Exception-Passive. Management by exception-passive is an "if it's not broke, don't fix it" leadership style. Here, leaders elect to sit back, observe, and wait for things to go wrong before taking action. They intervene only when policies or rules are broken. Management by exception-passive is a little more effective than laissez-faire, but only because subordinates know that leadership will hold them accountable if they fail to meet standards of performance or comply with policies and procedures.

Management by Exception-Active. Management by exception-active is a leadership style that aims to keep personnel and processes in control by monitoring and governing subordinates through forced compliance with rules, regulations, and expectations for meeting performance standards. Management by exception-active exists in a structured system with detailed instructions, careful observation, and very active supervision. Furthermore, this leadership behavior reduces organizational uncertainties, avoids unnecessary risks, and ensures important goals are being achieved. This transactional leadership behavior reduces the temptation for employees to avoid their duties or act unethically and aids members in meeting defined performance objectives.

Contingent Rewards. Contingent rewards is a transactional leadership style that involves the constructive transaction between leaders and followers. These transactions are contracts or agreements where the leader sets goals, identifies ways for the subordinate to reach these goals, and supports the follower along the way. The follower is then required to perform their assigned tasks to a specified performance level. When the follower achieves the leader's expectations, the leader reinforces the positive behavior by providing a reward. In other words, the reward is contingent upon the follower performing assigned tasks to expectations.

Transformational Leadership. Transformational leadership is a style of leadership that is defined by the application of offering followers a vision and inspiring their mission. This type of leadership inspires followers to exceed their goals and promotes positive, meaningful changes through intrinsic motivation and encourages others to act because they want to. To motivate intrinsically, a transformational leader must consider ways to get others to embrace ideas, strategies, and initiatives. There are four components of transformational leadership: individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, idealized influence, and inspirational motivation.

- Individualized Consideration (Nurturing). Individualized consideration is where leaders treat their followers as individuals with different needs, abilities, and aspirations and not just as a part of a group of subordinates. They empathize with and support each follower while maintaining healthy communication. Using individualized consideration, leaders "nurture" followers by acting as mentor or coach.

- Intellectual Stimulation (Thinking). Intellectual stimulation is the degree to which leaders value their subordinates' rationality and intellect by seeking different perspectives and considering opposing points of view. Using intellectual stimulation, leaders stimulate and encourage creativity in their followers, encourage followers to be independent thinkers, and are not afraid to take risks and solicit ideas from their followers.

- Inspirational Motivation (Charming). Inspirational motivation is when leaders are involved with developing and articulating visions that paint an optimistic and enthusiastic picture of the future that is appealing and inspiring to followers. These visions elevate performance expectations and inspire followers to put forth extra effort to achieve the leader's vision.

- Idealized Influence (Influencing). Transformational leaders are charismatic and act as positive role models who "walk the walk." They exhibit high levels of moral behavior, virtues, and character strengths, as well as a strong work ethic. They represent the organization's values, beliefs, and purpose in both words and actions and set aside personal interests for the sake of the group.

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.26. Leadership Attributes

Leading by Example. Leadership is modeling and setting the example for others - in word and action. Effective leaders lead rather than drive people. They make fair and firm decisions that are in the best interest of good order, discipline, and successful accomplishment of the mission. While no one expects a leader to be perfect, a leader cannot demand the best from others if he or she cannot demonstrate that they are willing to do the same. Through positive behavior, leaders live by their values and become good role models. They reinforce their credibility when they do not dwell on the effort they have put forth.

Involvement. A leader's success is reflected in the efficiency, productivity, morale, and enthusiasm demonstrated by the followers, and a leader's involvement is essential to maximizing worker performance and success of the mission. Leaders become a positive influence when they are actively involved in their Airmen's careers.

Learning from Failure. Leadership is about risks and rewards, and effective leaders realize that failure is possibly one of the greatest learning tools an organization has for achieving success. With every risk there is the potential for failure; however, these are the moments which shed light on the faults that exist within an organization. Effective leaders realize that learning from failure empowers change and inspires efforts to improve. Therefore, leaders never fear failure.

Transparency. Direction, decisions, and actions are rarely challenged if the leader's intentions are transparent. Transparency is accomplished by integrating regular communication, shared decision-making, mutual consensus, and healthy debate. Airmen should know the reason decisions were made and how decisions will impact them and the organization.

Flexibility. Leaders who are flexible listen to other's points of view, bend when necessary, and are not afraid to change course if things are not going well. Flexibility is an especially valued leadership trait during times of change or improvement.

Resilience. Leaders at every level within an organization constantly face challenges, changes, and criticisms. Resilient leaders must possess a combination of compassion and grit to persevere during times of uncertainty, deviation, turmoil, and conflict.

Accountability. Promoting accountability in the workplace includes establishing clear roles and responsibilities, cultivating a sense of pride and ownership among the members within the organization, providing regular feedback to subordinates, leading with integrity, and setting a positive example. Accountability does not focus on the discipline and punishment associated with being unaccountable; but rather, concentrates on creating and sustaining a continuously learning and always improving organization.

Positive Attitude. Leaders must demonstrate the attitude they hope to see emulated by their followers. Positive enthusiasm is contagious and can deliver energy to all aspects of organizational operations. The inclination to encourage Airmen, as well as oneself, is a powerful motivator. Effective leaders constantly embrace positive goals and display a positive attitude.

Values. The degree to which the values of trust, loyalty, and integrity are present in leaders of an organization directly relates to the organization's effectiveness. Leadership is the capacity to generate and sustain organizational values, often dependent upon consistency and reliability. Establishing values must also be balanced with a willingness to remove people who do not align themselves with organizational values.

Competence. Competence is developed with training, education, and experience. The skills and abilities of a leader enable them to competently lead others to achieve the mission.

Character. Character is who a leader is as a person with regard to personality. Character is developed over time and through effort and ambition. For character to be effective, it must be coupled with competence. While competence and character are considered valuable leadership traits, a combination of both will often be required for individuals to be perceived as great leaders.

Charisma. Charisma is an energy that is emitted by leaders to inspire Airmen to perform a task or objective when aspects of a mission are not inherently motivating or compelling. While charisma can be effective at enhancing morale, it should not be contrary to authority or undermine commander intent.

Compassion. Compassion is the sympathy and concern for the misfortunes of others. Compassion promotes healthy, open, and honest communication, and provides the stimulus for Airmen to discuss and deal with personal issues.

Courage. Courageous leaders must demonstrate both moral and physical courage in combat and in high-risk situations, as well as in day-to-day life. Leadership requires the courage to address sub-standard performance or unacceptable behavior, welcome new ideas, do what is ethically right when others prefer to do otherwise, and be honest. Acts of courage inspire others to maintain composure in stressful situations, providing the stimulus and encouragement to endure hardships.

Credibility. Credibility is the quality of being trusted and believed in. Credible leaders must exercise and demonstrate humility, commitment to the organization and mission, and optimize operations by tapping into the unique strengths of each team member. Occasionally, leaders must be willing to work alongside their followers to get the job done. Credibility may take years to earn through persistent, consistent, and patient leadership and can easily be lost with one thoughtless action, decision, or behavior. Successful leaders earn credibility through leading by example and taking responsibility. A crucial element of a leader's credibility is taking responsibility not only for his or her individual actions, but also for those of the Airmen.

2019 AFH-1

14.21. Leadership Attributes

Leading by Example. Leadership is modeling and setting the example for others - in word and action. Effective leaders lead rather than drive people. They make fair and firm decisions that are in the best interest of good order, discipline, and successful accomplishment of the mission. While no one expects a leader to be perfect, a leader cannot demand the best from others if he or she cannot demonstrate that they are willing to do the same. Through positive behavior, leaders live by their values and become good role models. They reinforce their credibility when they do not dwell on the effort they have put forth.

Involvement. A leader's success is reflected in the efficiency, productivity, morale, and enthusiasm demonstrated by the followers, and a leader's involvement is essential to maximizing worker performance and success of the mission. Leaders become a positive influence when they are actively involved in their Airmen's careers.

Learning from Failure. Leadership is about risks and rewards, and effective leaders realize that failure is possibly one of the greatest learning tools an organization has for achieving success. With every risk there is the potential for failure; however, these are the moments which shed light on the faults that exist within an organization. Effective leaders realize that learning from failure empowers change and inspires efforts to improve. Therefore, leaders never fear failure.

Transparency. Direction, decisions, and actions are rarely challenged if the leader's intentions are transparent. Transparency is accomplished by integrating regular communication, shared decision-making, mutual consensus, and healthy debate. Airmen should know the reason decisions were made and how decisions will impact them and the organization.

Flexibility. Leaders who are flexible listen to other's points of view, bend when necessary, and are not afraid to change course if things are not going well. Flexibility is an especially valued leadership trait during times of change or improvement.

Resilience. Leaders at every level within an organization constantly face challenges, changes, and criticisms. Resilient leaders must possess a combination of compassion and grit to persevere during times of uncertainty, deviation, turmoil, and conflict.

Accountability. Promoting accountability in the workplace includes establishing clear roles and responsibilities, cultivating a sense of pride and ownership among the members within the organization, providing regular feedback to subordinates, leading with integrity, and setting a positive example. Accountability does not focus on the discipline and punishment associated with being unaccountable; but rather, concentrates on creating and sustaining a continuously learning and always improving organization.

Positive Attitude. Leaders must demonstrate the attitude they hope to see emulated by their followers. Positive enthusiasm is contagious and can deliver energy to all aspects of organizational operations. The inclination to encourage Airmen, as well as oneself, is a powerful motivator. Effective leaders constantly embrace positive goals and display a positive attitude.

Values. The degree to which the values of trust, loyalty, and integrity are present in leaders of an organization directly relates to the organization's effectiveness. Leadership is the capacity to generate and sustain organizational values, often dependent upon consistency and reliability. Establishing values must also be balanced with a willingness to remove people who do not align themselves with organizational values.

Competence. Competence is developed with training, education, and experience. The skills and abilities of a leader enable them to competently lead others to achieve the mission.

Character. Character is who a leader is as a person with regard to personality. Character is developed over time and through effort and ambition. For character to be effective, it must be coupled with competence. While competence and character are considered valuable leadership traits, a combination of both will often be required for individuals to be perceived as great leaders.

Charisma. Charisma is an energy that is emitted by leaders to inspire Airmen to perform a task or objective when aspects of a mission are not inherently motivating or compelling. While charisma can be effective at enhancing morale, it should not be contrary to authority or undermine commander intent.

Compassion. Compassion is the sympathy and concern for the misfortunes of others. Compassion promotes healthy, open, and honest communication, and provides the stimulus for Airmen to discuss and deal with personal issues.

Courage. Courageous leaders must demonstrate both moral and physical courage in combat and in high-risk situations, as well as in day-to-day life. Leadership requires the courage to address sub-standard performance or unacceptable behavior, welcome new ideas, do what is ethically right when others prefer to do otherwise, and be honest. Acts of courage inspire others to maintain composure in stressful situations, providing the stimulus and encouragement to endure hardships.

Credibility. Credibility is the quality of being trusted and believed in. Credible leaders must exercise and demonstrate humility, commitment to the organization and mission, and optimize operations by tapping into the unique strengths of each team member. Occasionally, leaders must be willing to work alongside their followers to get the job done. Credibility may take years to earn through persistent, consistent, and patient leadership and can easily be lost with one thoughtless action, decision, or behavior. Successful leaders earn credibility through leading by example and taking responsibility. A crucial element of a leader's credibility is taking responsibility not only for his or her individual actions, but also for those of the Airmen.




Section 13E, Fosters Inclusion

Paragraphs 13.27. - 13.31. (All of Section E): No Changes

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.27. Organizational Culture and Climate

Every unit, business, or organization has a personality, temperament, and unique environment. Organizational culture is a way of describing an organizational environment. Dynamics within an organization are often driven by the way individuals behave based on perceptions of the organizational culture. This inherent system of cultural expectations and learned behaviors can greatly affect how well organizations perform. Leaders can be particularly effective in aligning the environment with employee needs when they understand the organization's culture and climate.

2019 AFH-1

13.4. Organizational Culture and Climate

Every unit, business, or organization has a personality, temperament, and unique environment. Organizational culture is a way of describing an organizational environment. Dynamics within an organization are often driven by the way individuals behave based on perceptions of the organizational culture. This inherent system of cultural expectations and learned behaviors can greatly affect how well organizations perform. Leaders can be particularly effective in aligning the environment with employee needs when they understand the organization's culture and climate.

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.28. Leveraging Diversity

Our work environment today is more diverse than ever. Diversity is a military necessity. The Air Force team is comprised of military, civilians, and contractors. Air Force capabilities and warfighting skills are enhanced by diversity among military personnel. At the core, diversity provides collective strengths, perspectives, and capabilities that transcend individual contributions. Air Force personnel who work in a diverse environment learn to maximize individual strengths and combine individual abilities and perspectives for the good of the mission. Our ability to attract and retain a larger, highly talented, diverse pool of applicants for service with the Air Force, both military and civilian, is a strength that will impact our future force. Diversity is about strengthening and ensuring long-term viability to support our mission.

2019 AFH-1

13.5. Leveraging Diversity

Our work environment today is more diverse than ever. Diversity is a military necessity. The Air Force team is comprised of military, civilians, and contractors. Air Force capabilities and warfighting skills are enhanced by diversity among military personnel. At the core, diversity provides collective strengths, perspectives, and capabilities that transcend individual contributions. Air Force personnel who work in a diverse environment learn to maximize individual strengths and combine individual abilities and perspectives for the good of the mission. Our ability to attract and retain a larger, highly talented, diverse pool of applicants for service with the Air Force, both military and civilian, is a strength that will impact our future force. Diversity is about strengthening and ensuring long-term viability to support our mission.

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.29. Respecting Individuality

The skilled leader deals effectively with all races, nationalities, cultures, disabilities, ages, and genders. In an effort to acknowledge the richness and benefits of diversity, we must increase awareness of individuality and expel stereotypes. Stereotypes regarding age, experience, background, or perspective are detrimental to organizations. Stereotypes ignore individual strengths and contributions and exploit generalized characteristics. The setbacks these issues cause are not only to the organization, but to the individuals within the organization who would otherwise contribute to the success of the mission. The workplace has no room for such stereotypes.

Appreciate Differences. The challenge is to incorporate everyone's talents into a cohesive and optimal workforce. We must recognize that people are vital to an organization's success. Leaders can find themselves dealing with a workforce ranging from 18-year-olds to those with 30 or more years of experience. Consequently, we need to understand the motivations and interests of this diverse workforce. What sparks interest and passion in one person does not necessarily ignite the next person. Effective leaders take time to recognize what excites others, leverage their talents, and cultivate a work culture that recognizes and appreciates differing perspectives and approachesto solving problems. The Air Force attracts people from every aspect of society, culture, and social status, none of which are under a supervisor's direct control. Although supervisors cannot change someone's inherent characteristics, they can change how they lead people as a cohesive team. Foremost, leaders must create a hospitable climate that promotes respect and inclusion. This will reduce dysfunctional tension and increase team productivity.

Establish Common Ground. The first step in leading a diverse organization is to form a common ground or a shared set of assumptions to form the framework within which to communicate. The common ground is the organization itself - the vision, goals, rules, regulations, processes, and procedures that govern what the unit does to achieve mission requirements. Clear guidelines improve communication, reduce confusion, provide purpose, and define desired outcomes. A team must have a clear sense of direction to prevent mass confusion with everyone going in different directions.

Everyone's experience and background should be considered as a unique resource. Diversity of experience and background allows diverse ways of perceiving and resolving problems. Managing workforce diversity can result in higher productivity, improved performance, more creativity, more innovativeness, and reduced stress. Giving emphasis to diversity without threatening our unity is the proper way to strengthen the ties that bind a team together.

Industry studies have consistently revealed that heterogeneous or diverse groups are more innovative than homogeneous groups because they view improvement opportunities from multiple perspectives. Managing diversity is determining which differences matter in enriching a product or service. Productivity is an outcome of respect and inclusion.

2019 AFH-1

13.6. Respecting Individuality

The skilled leader deals effectively with all races, nationalities, cultures, disabilities, ages, and genders. In an effort to acknowledge the richness and benefits of diversity, we must increase awareness of individuality and expel stereotypes. Stereotypes regarding age, experience, background, or perspective are detrimental to organizations. Stereotypes ignore individual strengths and contributions and exploit generalized characteristics. The setbacks these issues cause are not only to the organization, but to the individuals within the organization who would otherwise contribute to the success of the mission. The workplace has no room for such stereotypes.

Appreciate Differences. The challenge is to incorporate everyone's talents into a cohesive and optimal workforce. We must recognize that people are vital to an organization's success. Leaders can find themselves dealing with a workforce ranging from 18-year-olds to those with 30 or more years of experience. Consequently, we need to understand the motivations and interests of this diverse workforce. What sparks interest and passion in one person does not necessarily ignite the next person. Effective leaders take time to recognize what excites others, leverage their talents, and cultivate a work culture that recognizes and appreciates differing perspectives and approaches to solving problems. The Air Force attracts people from every aspect of society, culture, and social status, none of which are under a supervisor's direct control. Although supervisors cannot change someone's inherent characteristics, they can change how they lead people as a cohesive team. Foremost, leaders must create a hospitable climate that promotes respect and inclusion. This will reduce dysfunctional tension and increase team productivity.

Establish Common Ground. The first step in leading a diverse organization is to form a common ground or a shared set of assumptions to form the framework within which to communicate. The common ground is the organization itself - the vision, goals, rules, regulations, processes, and procedures that govern what the unit does to achieve mission requirements. Clear guidelines improve communication, reduce confusion, provide purpose, and define desired outcomes. A team must have a clear sense of direction to prevent mass confusion with everyone going in different directions.

Everyone's experience and background should be considered as a unique resource. Diversity of experience and background allows diverse ways of perceiving and resolving problems. Managing workforce diversity can result in higher productivity, improved performance, more creativity, more innovativeness, and reduced stress. Giving emphasis to diversity without threatening our unity is the proper way to strengthen the ties that bind a team together.

Industry studies have consistently revealed that heterogeneous or diverse groups are more innovative than homogeneous groups because they view improvement opportunities from multiple perspectives. Managing diversity is determining which differences matter in enriching a product or service. Productivity is an outcome of respect and inclusion.

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.30. Contemporary Motivation

Contemporary motivation is a simple, three-phased approach to motivation. This approach states that people can be in one of three levels of commitment to the organization: the membership level (at the lowest end), the performance level, or the involvement level (highest level). A person's level of commitment determines how motivated he or she is to accomplish the mission. The more committed a person is to the organization, the more involved he or she will most likely be. Supervisors can help ensure the proper rewards are provided so individuals can move to, or remain in, a higher commitment level.

2019 AFH-1

13.7. Contemporary Motivation

Contemporary motivation is a simple, three-phased approach to motivation. This approach states that people can be in one of three levels of commitment to the organization: the membership level (at the lowest end), the performance level, or the involvement level (highest level). A person's level of commitment determines how motivated he or she is to accomplish the mission. The more committed a person is to the organization, the more involved he or she will most likely be. Supervisors can help ensure the proper rewards are provided so individuals can move to, or remain in, a higher commitment level.

2021 E6 Study Guide

13.31. Organizational Norms

Similar to recognizing employee commitment levels and organizational culture, organizational norms can affect employee motivation and behaviors. Understanding that norms exist, can help leaders address and determine how to adjust organizational norms that can in turn align employee's motivations on a behavioral level. Positive norms support the organization's goals and objectives and foster behavior directed toward achieving those goals. Norms that support hard work, loyalty, quality, and concern for customer satisfaction are examples of positive norms. Negative norms have just the opposite effect. They promote behavior that works to prevent the organization from achieving its objectives. Negative norms are those that sanction criticism of the company, theft, absenteeism, and low levels of productivity.

Employee Motivation and Organizational Norms. To be effective, operational managers, leaders, and supervisors must learn to instill positive norms to properly motivate Airmen. If a military member's behavior does not support positive organizational norms, the supervisor needs to determine the underlying reasons. The individual's behavior could be a result of unmet needs, a result of discipline problems, or both. Areas that affect the dynamic culture between employee motivation and organizational norms are covered here.

- Organizational and Personal Pride. Organizational and personal pride norms are associated with an individual's feelings of identification and sense of pride regarding the organization. Positive norms lead individuals to see the organization as "his" or "hers." Negative norms are reflected in a "we" vs. "they" attitude toward the organization and its goals. Often friendly competition among military organizations can help units become better at their missions and exhibit greater morale and motivation in a positive way. However, if competition hampers the mission and leads to reduced morale and motivation, competition would be considered to be a negative norm.

- Teamwork and Communication.   Teamwork and communication norms are reflected in the visible behaviors where individuals work together and cooperate with one another. Positive norms promote sharing of information and working together to achieve common goals. Negative norms foster individuality, secrecy, and the belief that success is achieved by an attitude of "everyman for himself."

- Leadership and Supervision. Leadership and supervision norms can enhance or hinder organization contribution and productivity. Positive norms result in supervisors assuming the role of subordinate helpers, trainers, and developers. Negative norms cause supervisors to assume more active roles, like constantly policing and monitoring Airmen.

- Profitability and Cost Effectiveness. Profitability and cost effectiveness norms determine behaviors with respect to profit and cost consciousness. Positive norms encourage people to save money and reduce costs. Negative norms foster a lack of concern for bottom line performance. The saying, "it's good enough for government work," is a negative norm that our Air Force cannot accept.

- Customer Relations. Customer relations norms result in individual behavior that affects the manner in which a customer is served. Positive norms are directed toward maximizing customer satisfaction. Negative norms lead to viewing the customer as an obstacle to be avoided. Each organization must cultivate a culture that helps develop positive customer relations to ensureour Nation can meet any challenge in the most effective manner.

- Innovativeness and Creativity. Innovativeness and creativity norms determine, to a large degree, whether original and creative behaviors are supported and encouraged. Positive norms lead to the stimulation of new ideas and positive change. Negative norms support the status quo and discourage experimentation. In today's environment, we all must encourage everyone to bring innovativeness and creativity to the table to meet the dynamic threats that terrorism has brought to our shores.

- Training and Development. Training and development norms are essential throughout our careers as we grow and cultivate future leaders of our Air Force. Positive norms in this group encourage training and view development as essential to the ongoing operation. Negative norms treat development as a nonessential aspect of the operation. Airmen are constantly training to become better equipped and prepared.

2019 AFH-1

13.8. Organizational Norms

Similar to recognizing employee commitment levels and organizational culture, organizational norms can affect employee motivation and behaviors. Understanding that norms exist, can help leaders address and determine how to adjust organizational norms that can in turn align employee's motivations on a behavioral level. Positive norms support the organization's goals and objectives and foster behavior directed toward achieving those goals. Norms that support hard work, loyalty, quality, and concern for customer satisfaction are examples of positive norms. Negative norms have just the opposite effect. They promote behavior that works to prevent the organization from achieving its objectives. Negative norms are those that sanction criticism of the company, theft, absenteeism, and low levels of productivity.

Employee Motivation and Organizational Norms. To be effective, operational managers, leaders, and supervisors must learn to instill positive norms to properly motivate Airmen. If a military member's behavior does not support positive organizational norms, the supervisor needs to determine the underlying reasons. The individual's behavior could be a result of unmet needs, a result of discipline problems, or both. Areas that affect the dynamic culture between employee motivation and organizational norms are covered here.

- Organizational and Personal Pride. Organizational and personal pride norms are associated with an individual's feelings of identification and sense of pride regarding the organization. Positive norms lead individuals to see the organization as "his" or "hers." Negative norms are reflected in a "we" vs. "they" attitude toward the organization and its goals. Often friendly competition among military organizations can help units become better at their missions and exhibit greater morale and motivation in a positive way. However, if competition hampers the mission and leads to reduced morale and motivation, competition would be considered to be a negative norm.

- Teamwork and Communication. Teamwork and communication norms are reflected in the visible behaviors where individuals work together and cooperate with one another. Positive norms promote sharing of information and working together to achieve common goals. Negative norms foster individuality, secrecy, and the belief that success is achieved by an attitude of "every man for himself."

- Leadership and Supervision. Leadership and supervision norms can enhance or hinder organization contribution and productivity. Positive norms result in supervisors assuming the role of subordinate helpers, trainers, and developers. Negative norms cause supervisors to assume more active roles, like constantly policing and monitoring Airmen.

- Profitability and Cost Effectiveness. Profitability and cost effectiveness norms determine behaviors with respect to profit and cost consciousness. Positive norms encourage people to save money and reduce costs. Negative norms foster a lack of concern for bottom line performance. The saying, "it's good enough for government work," is a negative norm that our Air Force cannot accept.

- Customer Relations. Customer relations norms result in individual behavior that affects the manner in which a customer is served. Positive norms are directed toward maximizing customer satisfaction. Negative norms lead to viewing the customer as an obstacle to be avoided. Each organization must cultivate a culture that helps develop positive customer relations to ensure our Nation can meet any challenge in the most effective manner.

- Innovativeness and Creativity. Innovativeness and creativity norms determine, to a large degree, whether original and creative behaviors are supported and encouraged. Positive norms lead to the stimulation of new ideas and positive change. Negative norms support the status quo and discourage experimentation. In today's environment, we all must encourage everyone to bring innovativeness and creativity to the table to meet the dynamic threats that terrorism has brought to our shores.

- Training and Development. Training and development norms are essential throughout our careers as we grow and cultivate future leaders of our Air Force. Positive norms in this group encourage training and view development as essential to the ongoing operation. Negative norms treat development as a nonessential aspect of the operation. Airmen are constantly training to become better equipped and prepared.